Ahmad Rizky Septiadi
Irfan Rinaldi Bimantara
Defination of Validity
A test is valid if it measures accurately what it is intended to measure.
Types of Validity
- Content Validity
- Criterion-related Validity
- Construct Validity
- Validity in Scoring
- Face Validity
1. Content Validity
- The test content is a representative sample of the language skills being tested.
- The test is content valid if it includes a proper sample.
Importance of content validity:
- The greater a test’s content validity, the more likely its construct validity.
- A test without content validity is likely to have a harmful backwash effect since areas that are not tested are likely to become ignored in teaching and learning.
2. Criterion-related Validity
To degree to which result on the test agree with those provided by an independent criterion.
Kinds of criterion-related Validity
is establised when the test and the criterion are administered at the same time.
- Concerns the degree to which a test can predict candidates’ future performance.
- Areas that are not tested are likely to become ignored in teaching and learning.
3. Construct Validity
The degree to which a test measures what it claims, or purports, to be measuring.
Construct: A construct is an attribute, an ability, or skill that happens in the human brain and is defined by established theories.
- Intelligence, motivation, anxiety, proficiency, and fear are all examples of constructs.
- They exist in theory and has been observed to exist in practice.
- Constructs exist in the human brain and are not directly observable.
- There are two types of construct validity : convergent and discriminant validity. Construct validity is establised by looking at numerous studies that use the test being evaluated.
4. Validity in Scoring
- A reading test may call for short written responses.
- If the scoring of these responses takes into account spelling and grammar, then it is not valid in scoring.
5. Face Validity
- The way the test looks the examinees, test administrator, educators, and the like.
- If you want to test the student in pronunciation, but you do not ask them to speak, your test lacks face validity.
- If your test contain items or materials which are not acceptable to candidates, teachers, educators, etc., your test lacks face validity.
How to Make Tests More Valid?
- Write explicit specifications for the test, which include all the construct to be measured.
- Make sure that you include a representative sample of the content.
- Use direct testing.
- Make sure the scoring is valid.
- Make the test reliable.
Download Slide PowerPoint version: Validity
Note: This material can be the result of students’ summarizing, paraphrasing etc. from references, mainly from Hughes, A. (2003). Testing for Language Teachers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The book was main book used by the students for the need of discussion in English Learning Assessment class in State Islamic Institute of Palangka Raya.