Journal Review: Age of Second-Language Acquisition and Perception of Speech in Noise

Review Journal

 

Tittle

 

Age of second-language acquisition and perception of speech in noise
Journal Journal of speech, language, and hearing research (jslhr)
Download Http://jslhr.asha.org/cgi/content/abstract/40/3/686#otherarticles
Volume and page Vol. 40 ; june 1997, hlm: 686–693
Years 1997
Writter Lynn hansberry mayo

Mary florentine

Søren buus

Reviewer Sabnawati
Date 27th may, 2017
Purpose of  research To determine if the listeners identified in florentine’s study are typical of non-native listeners and if age of second-language acquisition influences speech perception  in noise. Native mexican-spanish-speakers who learned american-english before age 6 or after age 14 were compared with a group of native american-english speakers.
Subject of research 1.      The monolingual group (mon) consisted of 9 listeners who learned english from birth and ranged in age from 20 to 29 years old.

2.      The bilingual-since-infancy group (bsi) included 3 listeners who could not determine which language they learned first, they were between 21 and 35 years old

3.      The bilingual-since-toddler group (bst) included 9 listeners who learned english as a second language before the age of 6. They were between 22 and 37 years old and spoke english for an average of 24 years (range: 17–32 years).

4.      The bilingual-post-puberty (bpp) group consisted of 9 listeners who learned english after the age of 14. They were between 21 and 49 years old and spoke english for an average of 9.4 years (range: 3– 26 years).

all listeners were university students and reported using english for daily communication.

Data source The research uses several ways :

1.      Spin test

2.      Observations

3.      Data analysis

Method of research The  research use two methods:

1.      Quantitative component

2.      Qualitative method

Stage of  result The research is divided into several stages :

1.      Preparing for make a group to each listener

2.      Setting up the matter of  pretest and posttest for get the result on listener that learning a second language at an early age is important for the ability to understand it in noisy situations.

Result of research 1. Highly proficient non-native listeners who learned

English after puberty perform worse in noise than listeners

Who learned the language as infants or toddlers,

Although all listeners performed with native-like proficiency

(better than 96% correct) in the quiet.

2. The slopes of the psychometric functions for early

Bilinguals indicate that they can take better advantage

Of context than listeners who acquired their second language

After puberty.

3. Although early bilinguals demonstrate significantly

Better speech-discrimination-in-noise skills than listeners

Who learned the language after puberty, they may

Not function at the same level as monolinguals, who demonstrate

Higher ntls and steeper psychometric functions.

Although early second-language acquisition is advantageous

For listening in noise, interference from a first language

May reduce even an early-bilingual listener’s ability

To perceive second-language speech in noise.

Strength ofresearch Using many theories of second-language acquisition suggest that age of acquisition , which it is supporting this study.
Weakness ofresearch 1.      Quantitative component

Detail about the pretest and posttestwas not included, so it does not convince the reader that strategy was carried out or not.

2.      Using a few method, it make difficult for researcher to get the result of this research.

 

Conclusion 1.      This research is still in need of repair, so it needs for criticism and suggestions.

2.      This research is interesting to do in the next research for who want learn more about Age of second-language acquisition and perception of speech in noise.

Journal Review: Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study

Review Journal

 

Tittle

 

Second Language Acquisition : A Case Study
Journal IOSR Journal Of Humanities and Social Science
Download www.iosrJournal.org
Volume and Page Vol. 19, No. 10; October 2014, Hlm: 65-68
Years 2014
Writter Koutsompou Violetta-Irene
Reviewer Esti Rahmawati
Date 3th June, 2016
Purpose of  Research The purpose of this study is the case study presented in the journal, deals with the subject of second language acquisition making at the same time on effort to show as much as possible how L1, was acquired and the ways L1, affected L2, through the process of examining a Greek girl who has been exposed to the English language from the age of eight
Subject of Research A Greek girl who has been exposed to the English language from the age of eight
Data Source The Research uses several ways :

1.    Seeking data

2.    Interview

3.    Recording

Method of Research The  Research Use two Methods:

1.    Qualitative Method

2.    Type of method is Case Study

Stage of  Result The Research is divided into several stages :

1.    Seeking data on the stage

2.    Interview both of the child and his parent

3.    Used tape recording

Result of Research The Analysis Result of  The Research Conducted is :

  1. Found the difficult of the Greek girl, and give solution if the subject can learn new words and practice English can use in them in either speaking and writing.
Strength ofResearch 1.    This research is the great experience for the researcherand the other because this study to observe an individual in an issue of great concern in the field of language

2.    This study using study case for finding the concerning issues such as age, social, family background and others.

3.    For the researchers or the reader can know the difficult about the speaking section.

Weakness ofResearch
  1. The researcher tell this study if the study cannot written more about the child examined but the study requires a lot of analysis which, unfortunately, there is no opportunity to conduct.
Conclusion 1.    This study tell about the child examined is not affected negatively by the fact that everything the researcher talk

2.    This study talk about concerning issues such as age, social and family background, personal characteristics, age, sex, motivation, environment, parental education and financial situation for we will have the chance to understand how the above factors played either a negative or a positive role in acquiring L2

Journal Review: Culture-Based Education and Its Relationship to Student Outcomes

Review Journal

 

Tittle

 

Culture-based education and its relationship to student outcomes
Journal Kamehameha university
Download www.ksbe.edu/_assets/spi/pdfs/CBE_relationship_to_student_outcomes.pdf
Volume and Page September 2010, Hlm: 1-30
Years 2010
Writter Shawn Kana‘iaupuni, Brandon Ledward, ‘Umi Jensen
Reviewer Andi Harmiawan
Date 30th  Mei, 2017
Purpose of  Research The findings are consistent with prior qualitative studies, indicating that culture-based educational strategies positively impact student outcomes, particularly Native Hawaiian student outcomes. This research underscores the benefits of culturally responsive pedagogy and practice. The implications of this study are valuable for education practitioners, programs, and policymakers seeking ways to eliminate achievement gaps for indigenous and other students.
Subject of Research Hawaian- students enrolled in school around  hawaian at the Kamehameha school
Data Source The Research uses several ways :

1.    Demographic Questionnaire

2.    Interview

3.    Data Analysis

Method of Research The  Research Use two Methods:

1.    Quantitative Component

Stage of  Result The Research is divided into several stages :

1.    Language: use of heritage language in teaching

2.    Ohana and community involved

3.    Determine The Steps and Scoring

4.    Preparing the Materials which will be used for Research to support heritage of language inflict education

Result of Research The teacher data reveal three main findings. First, the data show evidence that CBE is being implemented to varying degrees in classrooms across the state. As expected, Hawaiian cul­ture- and language-based schools are quick to adopt CBE. However, results indicate strong CBE users teaching in mainstream settings as well. Second, CBE is not limited to Hawaiian teachers. Although Hawaiians subscribe to culture-based pedagogy more often, these ap­proaches also are embraced by non-Hawaiian teachers, especially those in school settings that prioritize cultural relevance in education. Third, across all school types, including culturally grounded schools, teachers report regular use of the strategies that are generally considered best practice in teaching and instruction. Rather than CBE being divergent from best prac­tices, the data suggest a “double win” for children in culture-based environments. Specifically, the data suggest that in culture-rich environments, teachers go above and beyond conven­tional best practice to achieve relevance and rigor, delivering highly relevant education via culture-based strategies in addition to the research-based body of teaching strategies known as best practices. In effect, principles such as contextualization and joint productive activity are most often achieved by teachers using culturally relevant strategies.
Strength ofResearch 1.    The Theoretical Basis is Right

2.    Using many of  The Analysis  Methods

Weakness ofResearch There are several materials which can be enhanced, namely:

A.   Methodelogy

1.   Quantitative Component

–         Nothing treatment foundation for use it, it have to include references from books or articles about the use of treatment.

“(a) without access to annota­tions, (b) with only verbal annotations available, (c) with only visual annotations available, and (d) with both visual and verbal annotations available”

–         Detail about the pretest and post-testwas not included, so it does not convince the reader that strategy was carried out or not.

2.   Quantitative

–         No attachments on what is being asked to students at the time in interview takes place.

 

 

Conclusion 1.    This research is still in need of repair, so it needs for criticism and suggestions.

2.    The strategy used to be very helpful in this research.

3.    In this journal can help the student to the face listening comprehension.

Keeping Skin Healthy and Beautiful. Do not Need Expensive! by Eni Andri Ani

How to get and keep skin healthy
Image Source: whatwomanneeds.com

Keeping Skin Healthy and Beautiful, Do not Need Expensive!

Eni Andri Ani
SRN: 1301120860
Class: B

Okay today we will discuss about “How to Keep Skin Healthy and Beautiful, Do not Need Expensive”. Many women are willing to do anything to get healthy and beautiful skin. Not infrequently they are happy to pay big to keep her skin healthy and beautiful.

This phenomenon can be seen in women today. They spent more time in places of beauty for beauty care for to stay awake. Pinch ourselves had been the nature of a woman. But keep in mind, do not do something excessive because it was not good and prohibited by religion.

To restore naturalness for healthy and beautiful skin does not have to require a large fee but there is way easier, cheaper, and of course healthy. Here are some secrets to keep your skin healthy and beautiful.

1.     A regular bath with shower

Water from the shower will immediately wash the dirt and soap suds from our body. In contrast, if we showered by wading, dirt from the body will be mixed in water and can be re-attached to the body.

2.    Use soap according to skin type
Often feel the skin dry after a shower? Means tones need to look at the soap you use. Soap that produces a lot of foam means it contains detergents that much anyway. This will make the skin dry and rough. We need to know, after washing with soap, skin pH will rise to 9 of normal skin pH is 4.2 to 6.2 (pH balance). So, choose a low pH soap.

3.    Wear sunscreen when outdoors

It’s hard to avoid direct sunlight. For that, use a sunscreen (sun block) to keep skin protected from the sun that contain harmful UV rays. Obviously, select sun block formula is safe to use and according to skin type.

4.    Drinking water in sufficient quantities

The human body is composed of 80% water so it is important for us to consume water that is not dehydration and dry skin. Drink plenty of water is one of the ways the most efficient skin care and natural and suitable for all skin types. Drink 8 glasses of water a day or more to get healthy skin.

5.    Eat more vegetables and fruits

Vegetables and fruits contain many vitamins are good for the health of the body and skin. Intake of vitamins and antioxidants from fruits and vegetables is very important for the skin because it can counteract free radicals that damage the skin.

Health is the most important thing for us. Especially for women who want a healthy and beautiful skin should keep eating and living. Not hard and do not need to spend a lot of money to have a healthy and beautiful skin. Simply by drank lots of water and eating vegetables and fruits. Therefore, let’s apply healthy life for themselves and their families for a healthy life is everyone’s dream.

Conclusion of Keeping Skin Healthy and Beautiful

Well its name’s skin had to be cared for properly to keep it healthy, but you need high discipline in order to avoid disruption and do anything to get healthy and beautiful skin.. Okay, I think enough my article today.

Note: Article is not edited. It was presented in Public Speaking Class in State Islamic Institute of Palangka Raya.

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Journal Review: Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study

Journal Review

 

Tittle

 

Second Language Acquisition : A Case Study
Journal IOSR Journal Of Humanities and Social Science
Download www.iosrJournal.org
Volume and Page Vol. 19, No. 10; October 2014, Hlm: 65-68
Years 2014
Writter Koutsompou Violetta-Irene
Reviewer Esti Rahmawati
Date 3th June, 2016
Purpose of  Research The purpose of this study is the case study presented in the journal, deals with the subject of second language acquisition making at the same time on effort to show as much as possible how L1, was acquired and the ways L1, affected L2, through the process of examining a Greek girl who has been exposed to the English language from the age of eight
Subject of Research A Greek girl who has been exposed to the English language from the age of eight
Data Source The Research uses several ways :

1.    Seeking data

2.    Interview

3.    Recording

Method of Research The  Research Use two Methods:

1.    Qualitative Method

2.    Type of method is Case Study

Stage of  Result The Research is divided into several stages :

1.    Seeking data on the stage

2.    Interview both of the child and his parent

3.    Used tape recording

Result of Research The Analysis Result of  The Research Conducted is

– Found the difficult of the Greek girl, and give solution if the subject can learn new words and practice English can use in them in either speaking and writing.

Strength ofResearch 1.    This research is the great experience for the researcherand the other because this study to observe an individual in an issue of great concern in the field of language

2.    This study using study case for finding the concerning issues such as age, social, family background and others.

3.    For the researchers or the reader can know the difficult about the speaking section.

Weakness ofResearch The researcher tell this study if the study cannot written more about the child examined but the study requires a lot of analysis which, unfortunately, there is no opportunity to conduct.
Conclusion 1.    This study tell about the child examined is not affected negatively by the fact that everything the researcher talk

2.    This study talk about concerning issues such as age, social and family background, personal characteristics, age, sex, motivation, environment, parental education and financial situation for we will have the chance to understand how the above factors played either a negative or a positive role in acquiring L2

Journal Review: Effects of Listening Strategy Training for EFL Adult Listeners

Journal Review

Tittle Effects of Listening Strategy Training for EFL Adult Listeners
Journal Asia TEFL
Download www.asiatefl.org/main/download_pdf
Volume & pages Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 135-169
Years 2010
Writer Ai-hua Chen
Reviewer Somia Salsabila (1401120953)
Date  22 Mei 2016

 

The purpose of research The purpose of this study is to know the effects of using strategy training for EFL listener on their listening processing and production.
Subject of research The subject of research is students college of Taiwanese
Assessment data This study collect data were used pre-test and post-test by questionnaire
Research methodology This research were used method quantitative take pre-test and post-test containing:

1.    Listening comprehension strategy questionnaire

2.    Listening comprehension test

3.    Self-rated listening scale

4.    Reflective journal

Steps of  research Steps of research :

1. The participants divide into two groups/classes with treatment and controlled class

2. Each of the class, class A (treatment)consisting of 35 students received listening strategy training, while class B (control) consisting of 36 students without any strategy training

3. Both the treatment and control classes were taught by the same instructor. In class, participants used the same listening materials, including the textbook, other supplementary daily-life authentic audio and video clips (around 140 words/minute, range from 1-3 minutes) and listening proficiency test practices

4. To collect the data, the participants must followed pre-test and post-test

The results of research The results of this research that there were found greater changes for the treatment class than for the control class. It mean that there were effects from using strategy training for EFL students. This strategy to help students  improving the skills in learning listening comprehension  and this strategy also to enhance their listening comprehension.
Strength of research – Many comparison on others country and university/schools by using strategy in learn listening.  It mean to make the research should be do because we able to know differences using strategy training or no in learning listening comprehension especially EFL students.

– This research has introductory in first paragraph include overall the journal, it will make the reader can be prediction what is the discuss

Weakness of research – To collecting data, the writer  just using one method, that is questionnaire. To collecting data the writer should be using several method to give strength information or results.

– Strategy used in research nothing describes

Summary  The name of college to research in Taiwan not mentioned

Journal Review: General Behaviours of Students with Poor Listening Skills or Who Do Not Listen to the Lectures According to the Teachers’ Opinions

 JOURNAL REVIEW

Title General Behaviours of Students with Poor Listening Skills or Who Do Not Listen To the Lectures According To the Teachers’ Opinions
Journal MIJE
Download http://mije.mevlana.edu.tr/archieve/issue_4_1/13_mije_14_03_volume_4_issue_1_page_164_175_PDF
Volume and pages Vol. 4 No. 1, pages 164-175, April 1st, 2014
Year 2014
Author Selim Emiroglu
Reviewer Nurliana (1401120997)
Date May 23rd, 2016

 

Research purpose The purpose of this study is to reveal the general behaviours of students with poor listening skills or who do not listen to the lectures and to develop opinions and approaches to resolve the identified negative behaviours.
Research subject 53 different teachers and academicians from different levels of academic and branches from the city of Konya in Turkey during the 2013-2014 academic year.
Assessment of data This research using quisioner to submit the data
Research method This is a qualitative research. In the analysis of the data obtained from the research, content analysis technic was used. “Content analysis refers to a systematic, iterative technic in which a script is summarized in smaller  categories of its words via codes based on certain rules” (Büyüköztürk, 2012: 240).
Research step The participating teachers were asked the open-ended question “From which reactions do you detect students with poor listening skills or who do not listen to the lectures?” to obtain the opinions of them. These obtained data were analyzed using the content analysis technic. Certain codes were identified via the content analysis and these codes were aggregated via themes. These opinions were stated as codes as well (T.1: Teacher 1). During the analysis process, field experts were consulted to review whether the categories and teacher responses were stated correctly or not. The experts were asked whether the titles, sub-titles are suitable or not, and the agreed upon points were included in the analysis process, and the disputed points were excluded from said process. The field experts generally stated similar views and corrections were made in line with the suggestions from the experts.
Research result According to the teacher opinions, behaviours of the students with poor listening skills or who do not listen to the lectures are handled under three main titles which are body language movements, verbal behaviours and material usage. These mentioned behaviours are developed with the explanations that include sample teacher opinions.
Strength of the research 1.      Using simple language, so make it easy to understand.

2.      It has many subject.

Weakness of the research 1.      Only use one method.

2.      Simple explanation.

3.      There are some typo.

Summary In this research uses teacher’s opinions, so it means that the opinions are not totally true. Because of many students have many ways to get knowledge, sometimes teachers just guest.

Reliability

Reliability slide ppt

Reliability

Presented by Third Group:

Dewi Mariani
Kurrotul Ainiyah
Rahmah Hidayatul Amini
Ringe Ringe Preshqoury Limantain

Definition of Reliability

Reliability is the degree to which a test consistently measures whatever it measures. Reliability is the extent to which an experiment, test, or any measuring procedures show the same result on repeated trials. Without the agreement of the independent observers able to replicate research procedures, or the ability to use research tools and procedures that produce consistent measurements.

The Five Types Of Reliability

  • Equivalency
  • Stability
  • Internal Consistency
  • Inter-Rater
  • Intra-Rater

Equivalency is the extent to which two items measure identical concepts at an identical level of difficulty. Equivalency is is determined by relating two sets of test scores to one another to highlight the degree.
Stability is the agreement of measuring instruments over time. To determine stability, a measure or test is repeated on the same subjects at a future date. Result are compared and correlated with the initial test to give a measure of stability.
Internal Consistency is the extent to which tests or procedures assess the same characteristic, skill or quality. It is a measure of the precision between the measuring instruments used in a study.
Inter-Rater Reliability is the extent to which two or more individuals (orders or raters agree. Inter-Rater reliability assesses the consistency of how measuring system is implemented.
Intra-Rater Reliability is a type of reliability assessment in which the same assessment is completed by the same rater on two or more occasions.

How to make tests more reliable

Take enough samples of behavior.
Other things being equal, the more items that you have on a test, the more reliable that test will be. This seems intuitively right. If we wanted to know how good an archer someone was, we wouldn’t rely on the evidence of a single shot at the target.

Exclude items which do not discriminate well be between weaker and stronger students.
Items on which strong students and weak students perfom with similiar degrees of success contribute little to the reliability of a test.

Do not allow candidates too much freedom.
In some kinds of language test there is a tendency to offer candidates a choice of questions and then to allow them a great deal of freedom in the way that they answer the ones that they have chosen.

Write unambiguous items.
It is essential that candidates should not be presented with items whose meaning is not clear ot to which there is an acceptable answer which the test writer has not anticipated.

Provide clear and explicit instructions.
This applies both to written and oral instructions. If it is possible for candidates to misinterpret what they are asked to do, then on some occasions some of them certainly will.

Ensure that test are will laid out and perfectly legible.
Too often, institutional tests are badly typed for, have too much text in too small a space, and are poorly reproduced. As a result, students are faced with additional tasks which are not ones meat to measure their language ability.

Make candidates familiar with format and testing techniques.
If any aspect of a test is unfamiliar to candidates, they are likely to perform less well than they would do otherwise. On subsequently taking a parallel version.

Provide uniform and non-distracting conditions of administration.
The greater the differences between one administration of a test and another, the greater the differences one can expect between a candidates performance on two occasions.

Use items that permit scoring which is as objective as possible.
This may appear to be a recommendation to use multiple choice items, which permit completely objective scoring.

Make comparisons between candidates as direct possible.
This reinforces the suggestion already made that candidates should not be given a choice of items and that they should be limited in the way that they are allowed to respond.

Provide a detailed scoring key.
This should specify acceptable answers and assign points for acceptable partially correct responses.

Train scores.
This is especially important where scoring is most subjective.

Agree acceptable responses and appropriate scores at outset of scaring.
A sample of scripts should be taken immediately after the administration of the rest.

Identify candidates by number, not name.
Scores inevitably have expectations of candidates that they know,

Employ multiple, independent scoring.
As a general rule, and certainly where testing is subjective, all scripts should be scored by at least two independent scorers.

Download Slide PowerPoint version: Reliability

Note: This material can be the result of students’ summarizing, paraphrasing etc. from references, mainly from Hughes, A. (2003). Testing for Language Teachers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The book was main book used by the students for the need of discussion in English Learning Assessment class in State Islamic Institute of Palangka Raya.

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Validity

Validity

Presented by:

Anisa Rahmadhani
Ahmad Rizky Septiadi
Irfan Rinaldi Bimantara
Lydia Anggraini
Norlaila Hayani

Defination of Validity

A test is valid if it measures accurately what it is intended to measure.

Types of Validity

  • Content Validity
  • Criterion-related Validity
  • Construct Validity
  • Validity in Scoring
  • Face Validity

1. Content Validity

  • The test content is a representative sample of the language skills being tested.
  • The test is content valid if it includes a proper sample.

Importance of content validity:

  • The greater a test’s content validity, the more likely its construct validity.
  • A test without content validity is likely to have a harmful backwash effect since areas that are not tested are likely to become ignored in teaching and learning.

2. Criterion-related Validity
To degree to which result on the test agree with those provided by an independent criterion.

Kinds of criterion-related Validity
Concurrent Validity
is establised when the test and the criterion are administered at the same time.

Predictive Validity

  • Concerns the degree to which a test can predict candidates’ future performance.
  • Areas that are not tested are likely to become ignored in teaching and learning.

3. Construct Validity
The degree to which a test measures what it claims, or purports, to be measuring.

Construct: A construct is an attribute, an ability, or skill that happens in the human brain and is defined by established theories.

  • Intelligence, motivation, anxiety, proficiency, and fear are all examples of constructs.
  • They exist in theory and has been observed to exist in practice.
  • Constructs exist in the human brain and are not directly observable.
  • There are two types of construct validity : convergent and discriminant validity. Construct validity is establised by looking at numerous studies that use the test being evaluated.

4. Validity in Scoring

  • A reading test may call for short written responses.
  • If the scoring of these responses takes into account spelling and grammar, then it is not valid in scoring.

5. Face Validity

  • The way the test looks the examinees, test administrator, educators, and the like.
  • If you want to test the student in pronunciation, but you do not ask them to speak, your test lacks face validity.
  • If your test contain items or materials which are not acceptable to candidates, teachers, educators, etc., your test lacks face validity.

How to Make Tests More Valid?

  • Write explicit specifications for the test, which include all the construct to be measured.
  • Make sure that you include a representative sample of the content.
  • Use direct testing.
  • Make sure the scoring is valid.
  • Make the test reliable.

 

Download Slide PowerPoint version: Validity

Note: This material can be the result of students’ summarizing, paraphrasing etc. from references, mainly from Hughes, A. (2003). Testing for Language Teachers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The book was main book used by the students for the need of discussion in English Learning Assessment class in State Islamic Institute of Palangka Raya.

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