Reliability slide ppt


Presented by Third Group:

Dewi Mariani
Kurrotul Ainiyah
Rahmah Hidayatul Amini
Ringe Ringe Preshqoury Limantain

Definition of Reliability

Reliability is the degree to which a test consistently measures whatever it measures. Reliability is the extent to which an experiment, test, or any measuring procedures show the same result on repeated trials. Without the agreement of the independent observers able to replicate research procedures, or the ability to use research tools and procedures that produce consistent measurements.

The Five Types Of Reliability

  • Equivalency
  • Stability
  • Internal Consistency
  • Inter-Rater
  • Intra-Rater

Equivalency is the extent to which two items measure identical concepts at an identical level of difficulty. Equivalency is is determined by relating two sets of test scores to one another to highlight the degree.
Stability is the agreement of measuring instruments over time. To determine stability, a measure or test is repeated on the same subjects at a future date. Result are compared and correlated with the initial test to give a measure of stability.
Internal Consistency is the extent to which tests or procedures assess the same characteristic, skill or quality. It is a measure of the precision between the measuring instruments used in a study.
Inter-Rater Reliability is the extent to which two or more individuals (orders or raters agree. Inter-Rater reliability assesses the consistency of how measuring system is implemented.
Intra-Rater Reliability is a type of reliability assessment in which the same assessment is completed by the same rater on two or more occasions.

How to make tests more reliable

Take enough samples of behavior.
Other things being equal, the more items that you have on a test, the more reliable that test will be. This seems intuitively right. If we wanted to know how good an archer someone was, we wouldn’t rely on the evidence of a single shot at the target.

Exclude items which do not discriminate well be between weaker and stronger students.
Items on which strong students and weak students perfom with similiar degrees of success contribute little to the reliability of a test.

Do not allow candidates too much freedom.
In some kinds of language test there is a tendency to offer candidates a choice of questions and then to allow them a great deal of freedom in the way that they answer the ones that they have chosen.

Write unambiguous items.
It is essential that candidates should not be presented with items whose meaning is not clear ot to which there is an acceptable answer which the test writer has not anticipated.

Provide clear and explicit instructions.
This applies both to written and oral instructions. If it is possible for candidates to misinterpret what they are asked to do, then on some occasions some of them certainly will.

Ensure that test are will laid out and perfectly legible.
Too often, institutional tests are badly typed for, have too much text in too small a space, and are poorly reproduced. As a result, students are faced with additional tasks which are not ones meat to measure their language ability.

Make candidates familiar with format and testing techniques.
If any aspect of a test is unfamiliar to candidates, they are likely to perform less well than they would do otherwise. On subsequently taking a parallel version.

Provide uniform and non-distracting conditions of administration.
The greater the differences between one administration of a test and another, the greater the differences one can expect between a candidates performance on two occasions.

Use items that permit scoring which is as objective as possible.
This may appear to be a recommendation to use multiple choice items, which permit completely objective scoring.

Make comparisons between candidates as direct possible.
This reinforces the suggestion already made that candidates should not be given a choice of items and that they should be limited in the way that they are allowed to respond.

Provide a detailed scoring key.
This should specify acceptable answers and assign points for acceptable partially correct responses.

Train scores.
This is especially important where scoring is most subjective.

Agree acceptable responses and appropriate scores at outset of scaring.
A sample of scripts should be taken immediately after the administration of the rest.

Identify candidates by number, not name.
Scores inevitably have expectations of candidates that they know,

Employ multiple, independent scoring.
As a general rule, and certainly where testing is subjective, all scripts should be scored by at least two independent scorers.

Download Slide PowerPoint version: Reliability

Note: This material can be the result of students’ summarizing, paraphrasing etc. from references, mainly from Hughes, A. (2003). Testing for Language Teachers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The book was main book used by the students for the need of discussion in English Learning Assessment class in State Islamic Institute of Palangka Raya.






Presented by:

Anisa Rahmadhani
Ahmad Rizky Septiadi
Irfan Rinaldi Bimantara
Lydia Anggraini
Norlaila Hayani

Defination of Validity

A test is valid if it measures accurately what it is intended to measure.

Types of Validity

  • Content Validity
  • Criterion-related Validity
  • Construct Validity
  • Validity in Scoring
  • Face Validity

1. Content Validity

  • The test content is a representative sample of the language skills being tested.
  • The test is content valid if it includes a proper sample.

Importance of content validity:

  • The greater a test’s content validity, the more likely its construct validity.
  • A test without content validity is likely to have a harmful backwash effect since areas that are not tested are likely to become ignored in teaching and learning.

2. Criterion-related Validity
To degree to which result on the test agree with those provided by an independent criterion.

Kinds of criterion-related Validity
Concurrent Validity
is establised when the test and the criterion are administered at the same time.

Predictive Validity

  • Concerns the degree to which a test can predict candidates’ future performance.
  • Areas that are not tested are likely to become ignored in teaching and learning.

3. Construct Validity
The degree to which a test measures what it claims, or purports, to be measuring.

Construct: A construct is an attribute, an ability, or skill that happens in the human brain and is defined by established theories.

  • Intelligence, motivation, anxiety, proficiency, and fear are all examples of constructs.
  • They exist in theory and has been observed to exist in practice.
  • Constructs exist in the human brain and are not directly observable.
  • There are two types of construct validity : convergent and discriminant validity. Construct validity is establised by looking at numerous studies that use the test being evaluated.

4. Validity in Scoring

  • A reading test may call for short written responses.
  • If the scoring of these responses takes into account spelling and grammar, then it is not valid in scoring.

5. Face Validity

  • The way the test looks the examinees, test administrator, educators, and the like.
  • If you want to test the student in pronunciation, but you do not ask them to speak, your test lacks face validity.
  • If your test contain items or materials which are not acceptable to candidates, teachers, educators, etc., your test lacks face validity.

How to Make Tests More Valid?

  • Write explicit specifications for the test, which include all the construct to be measured.
  • Make sure that you include a representative sample of the content.
  • Use direct testing.
  • Make sure the scoring is valid.
  • Make the test reliable.


Download Slide PowerPoint version: Validity

Note: This material can be the result of students’ summarizing, paraphrasing etc. from references, mainly from Hughes, A. (2003). Testing for Language Teachers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The book was main book used by the students for the need of discussion in English Learning Assessment class in State Islamic Institute of Palangka Raya.




Kinds of Test and Testing

Kinds of Test and Testing

Presented by:

Ahmad Sahiba
Dewi Aprila kartika
Kurniawan Dwi H
Septy noor amalia

Contents of slide:

  • Proficiency tests
  • Achievements tests
  • Diagnostic tests
  • Placements tests
  • Direct and indirect testing
  • Discrete point and integrative testing
  • Norm-referenced and criterion- referenced testing
  • Objective testing and subjective testing


Proficiency tests

  • Proficiency tests are designed to measure people’s ability in a language, regardless of any training they may have had in that language.
  • This test is based on a specification of what candidates have to be able to do in the language in order to considered proficiency.
  • This test is not based on courses that candidates may previously taken.
  • For example: TOEFL test, FCE and CPE.

Achievements tests

  • Achievement tests are directly related to language courses, their purposes being to establish how successful individual students, group of students or the courses themselves have been in achieving objectives.
  • Two kinds of this tests:
  1. Final Achievement Tests. Final Achievement Tests are those administrated at the end of course of study. They contribute to summative assessment. These tests have been referred to as syllabus-content approach which the tests’ content based directly on a detailed course syllabus or on the books and other materials used.
  2. Progress Achievement Tests. Progress Achievement Tests are intended to measure the measure the progress that students are making (Formative assessment). One way of measuring progress would be repeatedly to administer final achievement test, the increasing scores indicating the progress made.

Diagnostic tests 

  • Diagnostic tests are used to identify learners’ strengths and weaknesses. They are intended primarily to ascertain what learning still needs to take place.

Placements tests

  • Placement tests are intended to provide information that will help to place students at the stage (or in the part) of the teaching program most appropriate to their abilities.
  • Typically used to assign students to classes at different levels.

Direct and indirect testing

  • Direct test requires the candidate to perform precisely the skill that we wish to measure.
  • Indirect test attempts to measure the abilities that underlie the skills in which we are interested.
  • The main problem with indirect tests is that the relationship between performance on them and performance of the skills in which we are usually more interested tends to be rather weak in strength and uncertain in nature.

Discrete point and integrative testing

  • Discrete point testing refers to the testing of one element at a time, item by item. For example, take the form of a series of items, each testing a particular grammatical structure.
  • Integrative testing requires the candidate to combine many language elements in the completion of a task. For example, writing composition, making notes, etc.

Norm-referenced and criterion- referenced testing

  • Norm-referenced testing relates to one candidate’s performance to that of other candidates, and not told directly what the student is capable of doing in the language.
  • For example: student A obtained score that place him in the top 10 per cent of candidates who have taken that test.
  • Criterion-referenced test is classify people according to whether or not they are able to perform some task or set of task satisfactory.
  • The tasks are set, those who perform them satisfactorily ‘pass’; those who don’t, ‘fail’.

Objective testing and subjective testing

  • Objective test is if no judgment is required on the part of the scorer. A multiple choice test, with the correct responses unambiguously identified, would be a case in point.
  • Subjective test is if judgment is called for. The less subjective the scoring, the greater agreement there will be between two different scorers.

Download Slide PowerPoint version: Kinds of Test and Testing

Note: This material can be the result of students’ summarizing, paraphrasing etc. from references, mainly from Hughes, A. (2003). Testing for Language Teachers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The book was main book used by the students for the need of discussion in English Learning Assessment class in State Islamic Institute of Palangka Raya.





Speech Script: The Death by Bona Lestari


Bona Lestari
SRN : 1301120906

Assalamualaikum Wr.Wb.

Ladies and Gentlemen,
The Honorable Mr. Aris Sugianto, M.Pd as a Public Speaking Lecturer and respectable to my beloved friends.

Firstly, let’s thanks to Allah SWT, the almighty who has been giving us his mercy and blessing till we can attend in this meeting without any obstacle in this good place and time with happy situation and good condition.

Secondly, may sholawat and salam always be our Prophet Muhammad SAW, who has guided us from darkness to lightness in the world as well as in the next world.

Thirdly, I never forget to says thank you very much to Mr. Aris Sugianto who has given me an oppurtunity to delivered my speech with the title“DEATH”.

DEATH is a necessity that will be experienced by every animate creature, Whether he a rich man or a poor man who knows he is a young or old ,he was a high official or ordinary people. SURE will experience death.In this regard Allah says in the Quran surah Al-Imran verse 185:

مَوْتِ ذَائِقَةُ نَفْسٍكُلُّ
Meaning: Every soul shall taste death.

One day a companion asked to Rasulullah, “O Messenger of Allah who is the person who is the most intelligent and most wise”.? .Rasulullah SAW replied, “The most rational is the most widely remember death.

Here’s a little advice to be conveyed by death:
1. Death reminds that time is precious
Nobody knows how much longer amount of time in her stage in the world will come to an end,nobody knows where death would pick him.When the allotted time is scattered in vain, and the end is in sight.Suddenly, oral moved to say, “O Allah, retrace my doom.

2. Death reminds us that we Nobodies
If the life of the world can be likened to a theatrical stage, thendeath is the end of allroles. Anything and anyone roleshas been played, when the director says “game is over”. All returned to their proper role . Allbegins and ends. And the end of it all is death.

3. Death reminds us that we do not have anything
Whoever he orpoor. Everything rulers or the masses will enter the grave
together bundle shroud.It was still nice. Because, we are born with are not carrying anything.

4. Death reminds that life is temporary
That everything will be split. And that enjoyment separator namedDead. Living not far from the cycle: beginning, developing, and the ends.

5. Death reminds that life is so precious
A farmer who will intelligently take advantage of the field by plantingvaluable plants. Remember the audience’s death was so close and very close. So I remind all, let us make death as our best teachers so that one day coming when we called we were ready to face him. Rasulullah SAW said: it is enough that death be the advice.

Wasalamulaikumsalam Wr.Wb.

Note: This speech script is not edited. It was presented in Public Speaking Class in State Islamic Institute of Palangka Raya. Perhaps this publication is useful for students/people who are browsing the example of English speech (Islamic English speech).

Speech Script: Ramadhan Fasting Obligation by Eni Andri Ani

Ramadhan Fasting Obligation

Eni Andri Ani
SRN: 1301120860

Assalamualaikum Wr. Wb.

The honorable Mr. Aris Sugianto, M.pd. as a public speaking lecturer and Respectable all my beloved friends.

First of all, let’s express our gratitude unto the Allah SWT, The lord of the world who always gives us blessings and mercies. So we can attend and gather in this nice place in good condition and happy situation.

Secondly, Sholawat and Salam always be with our Prophet Muhammad SAW, who has guided us from the darkness to the lightness in the world as well as in the next world.

Thirdly, I will never forget to thank Mr. Aris Sugianto who has given me opportunity to deliver my speech in front of you all. In this occasion, I would like to present my speech entitled: “Fasting Obligation”.

Fasting is to refrain from eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset.
The holy Ramadhan month has a special place in Islam. Therefore, Our Prophet Muhammad SAW and his disciples show great concern for this noble month.

Fasting is one of the pillars of Islam which is included in the 3rd. Pillars of Islam is obligatory for all Muslims in the world. Obligation means everything that must be done or implemented. Therefore we are a Muslim should be fast.

If there is a self-proclaimed Muslim, but not fast because he ignores it, he included those who Kufr. As for those who do not fast because he was lazy or inattentive but believes that obligatory then he has committed a great sin.

In the Chapter Al-Baqarah verse 183 Allah saying:

Al-Baqarah verse 183

This chapter explains that the fasting has been obliged and ordered to people before us, which has purpose is to increase piety to Allah Swt.

Fasting also has waivers for those who get sick and in transit. Half of the fasting primary is getting two elations, excitement is at a time when open the fasting, and at a time when meet Allah. Because people who do fasting one day then, the sins that have been passed and will come to be forgiven by Allah SWT.
All my happy friends.

As for the things that canceling and reducing the reward of fasting are as follows:
1. Eating and drinking deliberately
2. Smoking
3. Jima ‘
4. Menstruation or postpartum women
5. Ghibah
6. Namimah
7. Immoral
8. Lying and etc.

Ladies and gentleman,
We already know what the law for those who did not fast intently will get a great sin. NAUDZUBILLAHIMINDZALIK.

From my speech we can conclude that we as Muslims are obligated to fast. It was infinite reward that we can do the fasting on Ramadhan month. By fasting we will be guided to become the people that shalih and shalihah and will avoid actions that could harm us, both in this world and in the hereafter.

The month of fasting is momentum for us to merge all of our sins, do fasting candidly INSYALLAH the sins which we have done will get forgiveness from Allah SWT.

Fasting is able to teach us many things. With fasting we can feel how if we had not given rezeki by Allah, what if we cannot eat and so on. Fasting can open the eyes of our hearts to close ourselves to Allah SWT.
That’s all my speech, please forgive me if you found a lot of mistakes, I do appreciate to your nice attention, my God bless us forever.

Thank you very much, good morning.

Wassalamu a’laikum Wr. Wb.

Note: This speech script is not edited. It was presented in Public Speaking Class in State Islamic Institute of Palangka Raya. Perhaps this publication is useful for students/people who are browsing the example of English speech (Islamic English speech).


Speech Script: Isra Mi’raj of Prophet Muhammad SAW by Dyah Sri Wulandari

Image Source:

Isra and Mi’raj of Prophet Muhammad SAW

اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ

الْحَمْدُ ِللهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ وَالصَّلاَةُ وَالسَّلاَمُ عَلَى أَشْرَفِ اْلأَنْبِيَاءِ وَالْمُرْسَلِيْنَ وَعَلَى اَلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ أَجْمَعِيْنَ أَمَّا بَعْدُ

The Honorable Mr. Aris Sugianto as a lecturer of Public Speaking subject.
And all of my beloved friends.

First of all Let us say thanks to Allah SWT who has given his grace and guidance so that we can live in this world and still be given a chance to celebrate ISRA MI‘RAJ and also let us convey prayers and greetings to our great Prophet Muhammad SAW that has brought us to blessed religion that is Islam.

Ladies and Gentlemen,
On this nice occasion I will deliver a short speech in commemoration of Isra and Mi’raj of Prophet Muhammad SAW so that we as servants of God will always endeavor and try to improve our life and faith as possible and we can feel the happiness of life in this world or in hereafter later.

Ladies and Gentlemen,
Rajab month is a very historic month for Muslims because there is an important and remarkable event for the Muslim all over the world. In 27th Rajab, our Prophet Muhammad SAW was transported by Allah SWT from the AL Haram Mosque in Mecca to the AL Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem that called as Isra and then up to the seventh heaven called as Mi’raj. This event runs on shortly in one night. It is also described in the Qur’an Surah Al-Isra’ paragraph 1, which said:

أعُوْذُ بِا اللهِ مِنَ الشَّيطَا نِ الرَّجِيْمِ. شُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَي بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلًا مِنَ المَسْجِدِ الحَرَامِ إِ لَى المَسْجِدِ الأَ قْصَى الَّذِي بَا رَكْنَا حَوْلَهُ لِنُرِيَهُ مِنْ اَيَا تِنَا, إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيْعُ البَصِيْرُ. صَدَقَ اللهُ العَظِيْمُ.

Limitless in his glory God, who has transported his servant on a night from the Sacred Al Haram Mosque [at Mecca] to the Al Aqsa Mosque [at Jerusalem] which we have blessed around it so we showed him some of our signs (greatness). He is the All-Hearing, All-Seeing. [Surah Al-‘Isra ‘: 1]

Surah above explains that as Muslim we should trust and believe in the greatness of Allah SWT that surpasses anything that is not able to be done by anyone except him because Allah SWT is Almighty in the universe and only him. If you think logically, the trip was not possible happened because of the long distance between Mecca and Jerusalem. Even, the incident will not occur in modern age now where the technology of transportation has been sophisticated. Nevertheless, By Allah SWT’s will that can be happened.

Ladies and Gentlemen,
On a trip of Isra Miraj, Allah SWT commanded our Prophet Muhammad SAW and all his people to pray 5 times a day. Therefore, if we really believe in Allah and his prophet, we must carry out pray according to Allah’s command because prayer could prevent us from cruel and evil deeds. Moreover, prayer can bring us to enter his heaven.

Another thing which is important to remember is understands the meaning of the must of doing prayer. By commemorating isra mi’raj the moslem are asked to think and understand the meaning of the must of doing prayer so that they will always keep this commandment. They are also asked to penetrate the essence and the use the prayer, so that they no disobey this must. It is prayer which can put the servant in contact with his God and which distinct the believers and the disbelievers.

Ladies and Gentlemen,
Let us take a lesson from this incident that Allah SWT is almighty god in universe. And let us keep our faith by always believing in Allah SWT as our God and Prophet Muhammad as his messenger. Therefore, we should utilize the rest of our lives as the best as we can by doing a lot of good deeds and keeping away from all restrictions.

Ladies and Gentlemen,
That was short speech which I can convey today. Hopefully what I’ve said can be useful for us. Thank you very much for your attention, primarily I speak until the end of session on speech without any politeness so many mistake of rudeness I make, I really ask apologize. May we always be given grace and guidance by Allah SWT Amen

Thanks for your attention.

Wassalamualaikum wr. wb.

Note: This speech script is not edited. It was presented in Public Speaking Class in State Islamic Institute of Palangka Raya. Perhaps this publication is useful for students/people who are browsing the example of English speech (Islamic English speech).



Journal Review: Supporting Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition with Multimedia Annotations: The Students’ Voice




Supporting Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition with Multimedia Annotations: The Students’ Voice
Journal Calico
Volume and Page Vol. 21, No. 1; August 2003, Hlm: 41-65
Years 2003
Writter Linda C. Jones
Reviewer Khusyairiyah (1401120977)
Date 20th  Mei, 2016
Purpose of  Research Listening comprehension activities provide students with the aural component of the target language to help them better hear the intricate sounds, enunciations, and content and develop their abilities to communicate with others in a target language
Subject of Research English-speaking students enrolled in second semester beginning French at the University of Arkansas
Data Assesment The Research uses several ways :

1.    Demographic Questionnaire

2.    Interview

3.    Data Analysis

Method of Research The  Research Use two Methods:

1.    Quantitative Component

2.    Qualitative Method

Stage of  Result The Research is divided into several stages :

Preparing for Strategic Planning for Students’ Voice

Setting Up The Matter of  Pretest and Posttest for Observation on students’ comprehension of the aural passage and their acquisition of vocabulary

Determine The Steps and Scoring

Preparing the Materials which will be used for Research to Supporting Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition with Multimedia Annotations

Result of Research The Analysis Result of  The Research Conducted is :

The students performed best when they had access to visual and verbal annotations, moderately well when they had access to visual or verbal annotations alone, and poorest when no annotations were available to them. In most instances, access to multiple annotations led to significantly higher results than the other annotations. Students’ voices, in addition to the quantitative results summarized above, ex­tend Mayer’s generative theory of multimedia learning to listening comprehension since selection from the material available and construction of referential connections between visual, verbal, and aural representations gave students more retrieval routes to the information to recall vocabulary words and to comprehend the passage.

Strength ofResearch 1.    The Theoretical Basis is Right

2.    Using many of  The Analysis  Methods

Weakness ofResearch There are several materials which can be enhanced, namely:

A.   Methodology

1.   Quantitative Component

Nothing treatment foundation for use it, it has to include references from books or articles about the use of treatment.

“(a) without access to annota­tions, (b) with only verbal annotations available, (c) with only visual annotations available, and (d) with both visual and verbal annotations available”

Detail about the pretest and post-test was not included, so it does not convince the reader that strategy was carried out or not.

2.   Quantitative

No attachments on what is being asked to students at the time in interview takes place.

Data analysis is little bit, it seems less convincing in research conducted.

Conclusion This research is still in need of repair, so it needs for criticism and suggestions.

The strategy used to be very helpful in this research.

In this journal can help the student to the face listening comprehension.

Journal Review: Effect of Using Video Materials in the Teaching of Listening Skills for University Students


Title Effect of Using Video Materials in the Teaching of Listening Skills for University Students
Journal International Journal of Linguistics
Volume & Page Vol.6 No.4 Page 200-212 2014
Year 2014
Author KretsaiWoottipong
Reviewer Sugiannor (1101120705)
Date 22 May 2016


Purpose the research The purposes of the study are:

To develop listening skills of university students studying English with the use of video materials.

To evaluate students’ attitudes towards the use of video materials in teaching listening skills.

Subject the research The subject of this study is 41 first-year English major students in the second semester of the academic year 2012 at Thaksin University, Thailand. They were selected by random sampling.
Data assessment ·     Pretest-posttest

·     Questionnaire

Methodology Experimental Group (One Group)
Procedures The procedures of the study were :

The learning procedures and learning objectives were described to the students step-by-step.

The students took the pre-test.

The students learned with the video, covering 20 periods over 7 weeks.

The group was assigned to do the post- test.

The scores on the pre-test and post-test were statistically analyzed, compared, and interpreted using mean and t-test for dependent samples.

The students in the experimental group were assigned to respond to a questionnaire regarding their attitude towards the use of videos in teaching listening skills.

The results from the questionnaire were used to calculate the mean score of a particular comment and overall comments in order to gauge the students’ opinions.

Result The result of this study were :

According to the result of the t-test which was -20.248, it can be concluded that the learning achievement of students’ post-test is higher than the pre-test at a significance level of 0.05. The students’ English listening comprehension ability increased significantly after learning with the videos.

Students had positive attitudes towards using the videos in teaching listening skills.

The Strength of the research ·     There are many references in this study

·     The writer included good explanation in introduction

The Weakness of the research In methodology, the writer only has one group. It should be compared in two groups. One of control group, and the other of experimental group.